- Professor Oak of the Kanto region, who studies the relationships between Pokémon and humans
- Professor Elm of the Johto region, who studies Pokémon breeding patterns
- Professor Birch of the Hoenn region, who studies Pokémon habitats
- Professor Rowan of the Sinnoh region, who studies Pokémon evolution
- Professor Juniper of the Unova region, who studies the origins of Pokémon
The Pokémon League is a little-described organization that organizes and certifies Pokémon Gyms and Pokémon tournaments.
Gym Leaders lead Pokémon Gyms, and offer Gym badges to Pokémon trainers who can defeat them. Usually, this challenge takes the form of a Pokémon battle, but, occasionally, the challenges are a trial of skill or endurance, or the badges are given in return for extraordinary services rendered.
Each main region has at least eight Gym Leaders at a time. Any trainer who earns a Gym Badge from eight Gyms is eligible to go on to face the Elite Four or participate in the Pokémon League Championships, as appropriate.
Team Rocket - The first syndicate to be revealed in the Pokémon metaseries. In each of its various incarnations, Team Rocket desires to steal Pokémon to further its goal of world domination. They are led by the criminal mastermind, Giovanni.
Team Aqua and Team Magma — These two opposing groups each seek to cause huge alterations to the planet’s ecosystem. Aqua wishes to expand the seas by awakening Kyogre, and Magma wants to evaporate all the water (causing a huge drought) through Groudon.
Team Galactic — In Pokémon Diamond and Pearl, they are the evil team tormenting the region of Sinnoh. They desire to reshape time and space to their preferred designs by making a red chain to control Dialga and Palkia to attempt create a new universe.
Team Plasma - In Pokémon Black and White, the crime syndicate is Team Plasma, which intends to separate Pokémon from humans.